Sign systems for different projects vary greatly in size and complexity, and the final working drawings detailing those systems reflect that variety. However, there are basic elements which all well-prepared sets of sign drawings should contain. These are outlined as follows:
Sign plans. Based on architectural plans, these show the location of each sign.
An index of drawings on which each item is shown.
A complete, accurate listing of all copy wording to appear on the signs. This is also included on the graphic schedule.
A reproduction of the alphabet(s) and all symbols to be used in the sign system.
Elevations, sections, and details required to describe fully the design of each item.
Specifications which outline the fabricator's responsibilities and describe materials and processes to be used in the fabrication of signs. Typed specifications can be included on drawing sheets and bound with the set for a small project. They can be bound separately if very extensive.
Before discussing some of the above in greater detail, technical information about drawing materials is provided.
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Format and Materials for Drawings. Drawing papers are available in many different sizes and qualities suitable for working drawings. Dietzgen 1000H is of excellent quality, but others are also satisfactory. Selecting the correct sheet size to fit the project is most important. In general, plan drawings
All ideas, designs, arrangements, and plans indicated or represented by this drawing are owned by and the property of the designer, and were created, evolved, and developed for use on and in connection with the specified project. None of such ideas, designs, arrangements, or plans shall be used by or disclosed to any person, firm, or corporation for any purpose whatsoever without the written permission of the designer. Written dimensions on these drawings shall have precedence over scaled dimensions: contractors shall verify and be responsible for all dimensions and conditions on the job, and this office must be notified of any variations from the dimensions and conditions shown by these drawings. Shop details must be submitted to this office for approval before proceeding with fabrication.
. A statement such as this can be reproduced in the title block of all design drawings to help protect the designer's work and limit his require large sheets; elevations, sections, and details fit wtM small sheets.
Imprinting Title Block Information. Borders and title blcci information can be preprinted on drawing sheets of most any size. Obviously the designer or firm name and address can be imprinted with little extra cost, along with the following basic information:
Date: Drawn By:
Drawing No. Checked By:
Project No. Revisions:
Often designers include a paragraph prohibiting the use of am designs shown on the drawings without permission. (It is difficult to know how much protection this affords, but it makes the designer feel better.
On large projects it is common practice to imprint the client or project name in the title block. For smaller jobs, various preprinted stick-on labels or rubber stamps can be used to identify the project.
Preparing Signing Plans from Architectural Plans. For most
signing projects, existing architectural plans can be adapted for the designer's use. For exterior signing, he should use plans which show how the buildings are arranged on the site for interior signing, floor plans must show the detailed arrangement of areas or rooms within buildings, including stairways, doors, elevators, fire hose cabinets, and so forth.
On older projects which have been extensively remodeled, it may be necessary to draw plans of the existing conditions because as-built plans are not available. The designer should hire a drafting service to do this time-consuming and dull drafting or ask the client to have this work done.
Available architectural plans are sometimes too large to work with. At other times it is necessary to piece together parts of several plans, making one large plan of the entire project area. If this composite plan is too large to fit on one sheet, reduced prints can be made using an 1860 Xerox machine or equivalent. This machine will reduce a drawing by the following percentages in one step without the use of a negative film: 95, 75, 62, 50, and 46 percent. The 50 percent reduction is recommended because it will result in reproductions of a usable scale: 'A-inch down to Vs-inch (.6- to .3-millimeter) scale or Vs-inch down to 1/16-inch (.3- to .2-millimeter) scale. This machine produces a translucent vellum Xerox which can be used for making blue-line prints or mounted on opaque board.
The Convenience of Small Drawings. Paper sizes for all
working drawings except plans should be kept small. One sign item, or perhaps two, will fit neatly on 14 X 17-inch (35.6 X 43.2-millimeter) paper. A drawing set of this size combined with large plans is a practical convenience when bound separ rately from the plans. This eliminates constant flipping from plans to details by anyone who has to use the set.
Another advantage is that small sheets can be reduced to 8V2 X 11-inch (26.3 X 27.9-millimeter) Xerox prints for filing or easy reference. Notes and dimensions on reduced sets are large enough to be read easily. Yet another advantage to small sheets is that the size of the set and drafting time needed to produce it can be more easily estimated, allowing for one or two sign items per sheet.
Locating Signs on Plans. Each design office will develop its own method of designating a sign item on the plan. Elevation drawings, such as this, can be used to indicate the specific location of interior signs.
lozenge shape, which is distinct from other drafting symbols. This shape is indicated on plan in the general area of the sign. Because of the scale of these plans, it is usually impractical to show the exact, dimensioned location of each sign. This is best accomplished by locating signs on elevations which scale 1/4 inch to 1 foot, where the dimensions from floor to ceiling and the horizontal dimension from some obvious architectural feature can be shown.
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Even when dimensions have been shown, it is often necessary for the designer to coordinate this work with the installer, spotting exact locations on the job. Close coordination is particularly necessary where many signs are to be located in one small area.
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Chicago artist Dave Krainik makes use of a tour-color 8Wx 10 %” flyer to advertise his pen-and-ink with colored pencil pictures and impersonations. A realistically left corkboard back-ground supports examples of his work, Publish Â¬ ed on lightweight covered white stock, the piece is suitable for addition in a packet sent by mail to customers, or left after an in-person assessment. The mini-poster high quality of Krainik’s flyer provides itself to hanging in a fine art customer’s workplace.
ground with a low-tack adhesive (available in graphic-art supply shops). Safeguard your electronic camera to a tripod as well as attach the cord launch so that you could travel the shutter without shaking the video camera. Examine the camera Â¬ era for elevation as well as alignment alongside the work. Relocate the camera up until the piece loads the framework in sharp focus.
Set up the floodlights, one on each side, at 45 level angles to the piece up until flat, also illumination is attained. One method to check for also illumination is to hold an item of white paper against the item being photographed. A pencil held in front of the paper will certainly cast shadows of equal quality if your lights is even. Unequal illumination triggers one side of the piece to be darker compared to the other; readjust the lights to avoid this trouble.
Utilize the Kodak Gray Card to hinder Â¬ mine the proper exposure; taking a light-meter result directly from the.
art work can lead to an unreliable exposure. Location the card facing the piece to be photographed. Establish the f/stop to f/8 and identify the proper shutter rate, 1/15, 1/30, 1/60 of a second, for instance. Be sure you have the right ISO established on your cam Â¬ age for the type of movie you are using. Establish this shutter speed on your camera Â¬ period. Reconsider your emphasis and placement, and also take the picture utilizing your cord launch.
For insurance provider, repeat the procedure at the same shutter rate, but “brace” your exposures. This suggests taking one photo one f/stop above and also one f/stop here your initial setting. In this situation, you would make use of f/11 and also f/5.6 for the next 2 exposures. Tape your gos in a note Â¬ publication. Repeat this process for each and every piece. When your slides or prints are returned, they’ll be in the order you fired them.
Chicago artist Dave Krainik makes use of a tour-color 8Wx 10 %” leaflet to market his pen-and-ink with tinted pencil illustrations and also caricatures. A reasonably left corkboard back-ground supports examples of his work, Publish Â¬ ed on lightweight covered white stock, the piece is optimal for incorporation in a packet sent by mail to customers, or left after an in-person testimonial. The mini-poster quality of Krainik’s leaflet lends itself to awaiting an art customer’s workplace.
ground with a low-tack adhesive (readily available in graphic-art supply stores). Protect your cam to a tripod and also attach the wire release to ensure that you can journey the shutter without beveraging the video camera. Examine the camera Â¬ time for elevation and placement alongside the work. Relocate the electronic camera until the item fills the structure in sharp concentration.
Prepare the floodlights, one on each side, at 45 level angles to the piece till flat, also illumination is obtained. One method to check for also illumination is to hold an item of white paper against the item being photographed. A pencil held in front of the paper will certainly cast shadows of equal quality if your lights is even. Jagged illumination creates one side of the piece to be darker compared to the other; change the lights to avoid this trouble.
Utilize the Kodak Gray Card to prevent Â¬ mine the proper exposure; taking a light-meter result directly from the.
art work can lead to an inaccurate direct exposure. Area the card before the piece to be photographed. Establish the f/stop to f/8 as well as identify the proper shutter rate, 1/15, 1/30, 1/60 of a second, as an example. Be sure you have the proper ISO set on your camera Â¬ time for the kind of film you are utilizing. Set this shutter rate on your cam Â¬ age. Recheck your emphasis and also alignment, and also take the picture utilizing your wire release.
For insurance policy, repeat the procedure at the same shutter rate, yet “brace” your exposures. This indicates taking one photo one f/stop above as well as one f/stop listed below your original setup. In this instance, you would certainly make use of f/11 and also f/5.6 for the next 2 exposures. Tape your shots in a note Â¬ publication. Repeat this process for each and every item. When your slides or prints are returned, they’ll be in the order you shot them.
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